Persistent oxidative stress plays an important role in a variety of pathologies, and the search for an effective and well tolerated antioxidant agent continues. Molecular hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. The non-specific mechanism of hydrogen as a therapeutic antioxidant gives it broad therapeutic potential across a wide range of medical applications, as has been shown by a substantial volume of preclinical data, as well as a growing body of clinical evidence. This review provides an overview of the therapeutic potential of hydrogen, in ageing and wellness applications as well as medical applications, including acute ischemia/reperfusion injury, inflammation and ulceration, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer (anti-cancer effects, radiation toxicities, and side effects of cisplatin) with an emphasis on clinical data. Overall, this review shows that hydrogen is an effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective agent.
Gas signaling molecules (GSMs), composed of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc., play critical roles in regulating signal transduction and cellular homeostasis. Interestingly, through various administrations, these molecules also exhibit potential in cancer treatment. Recently, hydrogen gas (formula: H2) emerges as another GSM which possesses multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammation, anti-reactive oxygen species, and anti-cancer. Growing evidence has shown that hydrogen gas can either alleviate the side effects caused by conventional chemotherapeutics, or suppress the growth of cancer cells and xenograft tumor, suggesting its broad potent application in clinical therapy. In the current review, we summarize these studies and discuss the underlying mechanisms. The application of hydrogen gas in cancer treatment is still in its nascent stage, further mechanistic study and the development of portable instruments are warranted.
Recently, molecular hydrogen (H2) has become known as a new class of antioxidants and redox-modulating interventions. Effects of H2 have been documented for many acute and chronic pathological conditions. The present study was aimed at determining the effect of hydrogen on the physiology and longevity of Drosophila. The flies were given a patented food supplement consisting of a mixture of inert salts with metallic magnesium, which reacted with acidic aqueous solutions, thereby releasing hydrogen gas. The supplementation with hydrogen-rich food prolonged the life span of the wild-type strain. To gain insights into the effect of hydrogen, we used previously generated mutant under-expressing redox-regulating enzymes, peroxiredoxins, in mitochondria. The hydrogen-releasing material lessened the severe shortening of life span of the mutant. Hydrogen also delayed the development of intestinal dysfunction caused by under-expression of peroxiredoxins in the intestinal epithelium. Hydrogen also averted a significant decrease in the mobility of mutant flies that under-expressed peroxiredoxins globally or in specific tissues. Together, the results showed that the introduction of hydrogen to aging or short-lived flies could increase their survival, delay the development of the intestinal barrier dysfunction and significantly improve physical activity.
Using gas chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and qualitative experiments, we demonstrate that a water solution of dissolved dietary supplement, creating negative redox potential, contains invisible hydrogen nano-bubbles, which remain in the solution for several hours. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0927775713005554